Related Resources: Publications and Reports

General Outcomes

Improving Family and Community Engagement Through Sharing Data

Authors:    Marion Baldwin and Sally M. Wade, Southeast Comprehensive Center
Published:    November 2012
Description:    This briefing paper examines the key roles that families and communities play in student achievement and school improvement efforts, and the initiatives that states are taking to improve communication and engagement through effective data sharing.
Online:   http://secc.sedl.org/resources/briefs/improve_family_commun_share/ImprovingFamcommunity.pdf

Issues in Designing State Accountability Systems

Authors:    Gloria Harbin, Beth Rous, Mary McLean
Published:    August 2004
Description:    The purpose of this working document is to provide a resource for state policy makers and researchers who are interested in collaboratively designing and implementing rigorous and systematic accountability models that yield accurate data.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/Issues_in_Accountability.pdf

Getting To Outcomes 2004: Promoting Accountability Through Methods and Tools for Planning, Evaluation, and Accountability

Authors:    Matthew Chinman, Pamela Imm, and Abraham Wandersman
Published:    January 2004
Description:    Incorporating traditional evaluation, empowerment evaluation, results-based accountability, and continuous quality improvement, this manual's ten-step process enhances practitioners' substance abuse prevention skills while empowering them to plan, implement, and evaluate their own programs. The manual's text and worksheets address needs and resources assessment; goals and objectives; choosing programs; ensuring program "fit"; capacity, planning, process, and outcome evaluation; continuous quality improvement; and sustainability.
Downloads:   GTO Manual: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/TR101.pdf
Appendix: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/TR101.app.pdf

Early Childhood Programs and Evaluation

Authors:    Harvard Family Research Project
Published:    Summer 2004
Description:    This issue of The Evaluation Exchange charts the course of early childhood programming and evaluation over nearly half a century. Contributing authors offer a range of views on how best to communicate the importance of investing in a child's early years and how to improve early childhood programs and policies. Several articles consider the explosion of science?from longitudinal studies of child outcomes to a large-scale demonstration program?that has helped forward our understanding of how young children learn and grow. Finally, a number of articles suggest that better information is needed to close the persistent gap in achievement between children from low-income families and those from middle-income homes.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/summer2004.pdf468K PDF
Subscribe:   http://www.hfrp.org/subscribe/

Performance Budgeting: Observations on the Use of OMB's Program Assessment Rating Tool for the Fiscal Year 2004 Budget

Authors:    United States General Accounting Office
Published:    January 2004
Description:    The Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)is meant to provide a consistent approach to evaluating federal programs during budget formulation. To better understand its potential, congressional requesters asked GAO to examine 1) how PART changed OMB's fiscal year 2004 budget decision-making process, 2) PART's relationship to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), 3) and PART's strengths and weaknesses as an evaluation tool. GAO recommends that OMB (1) address the capacity demands of PART, (2) strengthen PART guidance, (3) address evaluation information availability and scope issues, (4) focus program selection on crosscutting comparisons and critical operations, (5) broaden the dialog with congressional stakeholders, and (6) articulate and implement a complementary relationship between PART and GPRA.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/d04174.pdf

The Head Start National Reporting System: A Critique

Authors:    Samuel J. Meisels and Sally Atkins-Burnett
Published:    January 2004
Description:    This Public Policy Viewpoint focuses on issues related to the assessment of young children and the new assessment requirements for children in Head Start programs. At the time of this Web posting, Head Start programs have undergone a significant event: use of a federally created test to assess the language, literacy, and math knowledge of all four-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The Head Start Child Outcomes Framework, Program Performance Standards, and teacher qualifications requirements have influenced child care and state prekindergarten programs. As the Head Start reauthorization and this new assessment move forward, it is important to consider how testing young children may affect the future of early childhood education.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/meisels.pdf

Evaluating Parent Involvement and Family Support in Early Intervention and Preschool Programs

Author:    D.B. Bailey
Published:    2001
Description:    This article describes ways in which preschool early intervention programs could be held accountable for their provision of family supports and services. The author argues that early intervention programs should be held accountable in three ways: First, the services families are legally entitled to should be provided. Second, parent involvement and family support programs should be of high quality and consistent with recommended practices. Third, programs should achieve certain family outcomes for parent involvement and family support programs. Recommendations are made for enhancing the evaluation practices of early intervention programs providing family services.
Citation:    Journal of Early Intervention, 24 (1), 1-14
Online:    http://jei.sagepub.com/content/24/1/1.full.pdf

The Power of Outcomes: Strategic Thinking to Improve Results for Our Children, Families, and Communities

Author:    Cornelius Hogan
Published:    June 2001
Description:   

In this essay, former Secretary of Human Services for the state of Vermont, Cornelius Hogan, asserts that the lack of coordination between federal, state, and local government and programs has hindered the progress of our national education system, and poses ways in which government agencies can work together to improve results for children and families. He writes that programs should employ an outcome and indicator approach which focuses on long-term responsibility and accountability, rather than the traditional activity, productivity,and effectiveness model, and discusses how by focusing on outcomes, programs can improve the well being of children and families.

Online:   http://www.conhogan.com/pdf/The-power-of-outcomes.pdf

Listen with Your Heart... Speaking Out: Parents Speak Out About Quality in Services

Authors:    National Center on Outcomes Resources
Published:    2000
Description:    This is part of a series of booklets that reflect information collected from several focus groups, including parents of children with disabilities, to find out what people are looking for in a support network, as well as the quality of services they receive. There's also a section on "outcomes from services" where outcomes appear to be structured around themes such as relationships, choice, leading a normal life, empowerment, connection to the community, etc.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/parents.pdf

Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study

Authors:    Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg, Margaret R. Burchinal, Richard M. Clifford, Noreen Yazejian, Mary L. Culkin, Carollee Howes, Patricia Byler, Sharon Lynn Kagan, Jean Rustici
Published:    2000
Description:    This technical report outlines the findings of the Cost, Quality and Outcomes Study. This study evaluated the quality of center-based childcare and how quality influenced child development over the four years from Pre-kindergarten through second grade. Findings suggest that the quality of a child care program impacts the development of math, language and social skills.
Download:    http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/23093333?uid=38334&uid=3739776&uid=2&uid=3&uid=38330&uid=67&uid=62&uid=3739256&sid=21102454391881

 

Child Outcomes

Measuring Outcomes Helps to Track Your Child's Progress

Authors:    PACER Center
Published:    2012
Description:   

In this article from the PACER Center newsletter, the purpose of early childhood intervention services and the importance of the family's partnership with early intervention and preschool special education professionals is explained. The newsletter also includes other resources, including an FAQ, for families.

Online:   http://www.pacer.org/newsletters/ec/summer12.pdf

Strategies to Support High Quality Child Outcomes Data Collection

Authors:    Gupta, S.
Published:    2011
Description:   

This paper presents a summary of findings from a research study examining processes, methods, and barriers to collecting high-quality child outcomes data. Results are based on a survey of 42 Part C and 619 representatives. The paper presents general findings and recommendations for practice.

Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/assets/pdfs/EcoResearchSummaryGupta.pdf

Impacts of Early Childhood Programs

Authors:    Isaacs, J.
Published:    2008
Description:   

The Brookings Institution and First Focus have published a new report which provides up-to-date evidence on the effectiveness of several early childhood programs and their impact on children and families. It includes a series of concise summary briefs for policy-makers on State Pre-K, Early Head Start, Head Start, Model Early Childhood Programs, and the Nurse Family Partnership.

Online:   http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2008/09_early_programs_isaacs/09_early_programs_isaacs.pdf

 

National Research Council Report on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Children Aged Zero to Five

Authors:    National Research Council of the National Academies
Published:    2008
Description:   

National Research Council's guidance on how to identify important outcomes for children from birth to age 5 and how best to assess them in preschools, child care, and other early childhood programs.

Online:   http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12446

Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities: Recommendations for Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation

Authors:    Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children
Published:    2007
Description:   

This paper is a companion document to "Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation - Building an Effective, Accountable System in Programs for Children Birth Through Age 8", a joint position statement created by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). The document is targeted to administrators and personnel working with young children with disabilities; teacher educators, family members, and policy makers will also benefit. The webinar gives participants an overview of the paper and its alignment with other recommendations for children with and without disabilities.

Online:   Paper- http://www.dec-sped.org/uploads/docs/about_dec/position_concept_papers/Prmtg_Pos_Outcomes_Companion_Paper.pdf

Webinar- http://www.dec-sped.org/About_DEC/Whats_New?id=34

 

Taking Stock: Assessing and Improving Early Childhood Learning and Program Quality

Authors:    Kagan, S. et al.
Published:    Oct 31, 2007
Description:   

A report from The National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force that details their final set of recommendations for state early childhood accountability systems, and for linking such efforts to standards-based assessment efforts in kindergarten and the primary grades.

Online:   http://www.pewtrusts.org/uploadedFiles/wwwpewtrustsorg/Reports/Pre-k_education/task_force_report1.pdf

 

Council of Chief State School Officers' State Collaborative on Early Childhood Education Assessment (ECEA SCASS)  On Early Childhood Assessment

Authors:    The Council of Chief State School Officers
Published:    2006
Description:   

The CCSSO state Collaborative on Student Standards and Assessments for Young Children has developed a number of useful tools for state policy makers and early childhood experts to guide their thinking and practice on appropriate assessment for young children.

Online: http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Programs/Early_Childhood_Education_Assessment_(ECEA).html

 

Accountability in Early Childhood: No Easy Answers

Authors:    Samual J. Meisels
Published:    2006
Description:   

High-stakes accountability testing has become a major focus of our educational system with the creation of the No Child Left Behind Act . However, Meisels argues that this approach, which was developed for middle- and high-school children, is problematic when applied to early childhood programs. Citing current research, Meisels points out four reasons for not using high-stakes tests to determine the quality of early childcare, and illustrates how these factors contributed to the failure of the Head-Start National Reporting System. Alternative methods for determining program quality are recommended including assessing: program characteristics, demographic variables, and program impact on children

Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/opmeisels2006.pdf

 

Wondering with Children: The Importance of Observation in Early Education

Authors:    George Forman and Ellen Hall
Published:    Fall 2005
Description:   

This paper asserts that through the process of observation, documentation, and interpretation of children's goals, strategies, and theories, teachers gain insight into children's thinking. As a result of this process, teachers are better able to engage children in conversations and investigations that have the potential to extend their learning in both depth and breadth. Utilizing brief video clips of both children and adults to support its premise, the paper outlines and discusses relevant aspects of observation for understanding and introducing the concept of the videative as a powerful resource for revisiting and analyzing documented observations.

Online:   http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v7n2/forman.html

 

Curriculum-Based Assessment Rating Rubric

Authors:    The rubric was adapted from the work of Deb O'Neil and the Staff at Rochester Schools ECSE, Rochester MI by Kristie Pretti-Frontczak, Laura Vilardo, and Dana Kenneley, Kent State University, Kent, OH.
Published:    Fall 2005
Description:    The curriculum-based assessment rating rubric was developed to help teams determine the quality of various assessments for use with young children. Quality is defined as the extent to which an assessment meets the standards set forth by recommended practice and research (e.g., AERA, APA, and NCME, 1999; Bagnato, Neisworth, and Munson, 1997). The rating rubric is composed of 17 elements that represent recommended assessment practices. The rubric can be used to guide teams in selecting an appropriate assessment for purposes including: identifying children's strengths, interests, and emerging skills; developing IFSP/IEP goals and objectives; planning and individualizing intervention; measuring child progress; and producing accountability data to meet federal and state requirements.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/final_assessment_rubric_fall05.pdf

Early Child Development in Social Context: A Chartbook

Authors:    Brett Brown, Michael Weitzman, et al.
Published:    September 2004
Description:    This chartbook was produced by Child Trends in partnership with the American Academy of Pediatrics' Center for Child Health. It reviews 33 indicators of intellectual, social, and emotional development and health for children up to age six, and family and neighborhood characteristics that affect children's readiness for school. The chartbook also includes brief research-based explanations of the importance of these indicators and considers steps policy makers, practitioners, and parents can take to improve children's outcomes in these areas.
Download:   Chartbook (Quick Download): http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/chartbook_quick_download.pdf
Chartbook: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/child_devel_chartbook.pdf

Child Outcome Standards in Pre-K Programs: What Are Standards; What Is Needed To Make Them Work?

Authors:    Rima Shore, Elena Bodrova, and Deborah Leong
Published:    March 2004
Description:    The standards movement that has altered K-12 education across the nation is now being extended to early education. In addition to program standards that describe the characteristics of classrooms and curricula, most states have developed (or are in the process of developing) child outcome standards that define expectations for preschoolers' development and learning. In the early childhood field, there has been a reluctance to use the word "standards." Child outcome standards geared to young children are often given different names, such as building blocks, essential learning, desired results, learning and development guidelines, or learning goals. All of these describe the same thing: the kinds of development and learning that should be taking place. Prekindergarten standards should take into account today's best understandings of how young children develop and learn.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/5.pdf

Developing an Early Childhood Outcomes System for OSEP: Key Considerations

Authors:    Deborah Montgomery Parrish and Gabriele Phillips
Revised:    December 15, 2003
Description:    To continue to advance work in the area of child outcomes, OSEP asked AIR to review and compile available information on approaches to measurement of child outcomes.
Downloads:    OSEP Reporthttp://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Final_Report_12_15.pdf
Appendix A: Child Outcome Standards Table http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppA.pdf
Appendix B: Child Outcome Domains, Comparisons Across Five Systems http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppB.pdf
Appendix C: Child Outcome Measurement Tools http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppC.pdf
Appendix D: Summary of Nine Family Outcome Systems http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppD.pdf
Appendix E: Family Outcome Measurement Tools http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppE.pdf
Appendix F: 2003 APR Summary Table http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppF.pdf

Implementing Results-Based Decision making: Advice from the Field

Author:    Sara Watson
Published:    1999
Description:    A joint publication of the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and The Finance Project, this report is based on extensive interviews and discussion with more than 50 leaders in the field providing advice on measuring the success of their supports for children and families by the results or outcomes they achieve for individuals, families and communities. It covers various dimensions of results-based decision-making, including strategic planning which logically connects strategies to the outcomes.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/1999WELFAREBARRIERS.pdf

 

Child Outcomes Measurement

State Pre-K Assessment Policies: Issues and Status

Authors:    Debra J. Ackerman and Richard J. Coley
Published:    2012
Description:    Report describes state-funded Pre-K assessment policies and programs operating in 2012 and discusses special challenges related to assessing young children.
Online:   http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PIC-PRE-K.pdf

Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How

Authors:    Catherine E. Snow and Susan B. Van Hemel
Published:    2008
Description:    Report of the Committee on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children; Board of Children Youth and Families. This report is a result of a congressional mandate for a National Research Council panel to "review and provide guidance on appropriate outcomes and assessments for young children." This report identifies the important outcomes for children from birth to age 5 and the quality and purposes of different techniques and instruments for developmental assessments.
Online:   http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12446#toc


National Association of School Psychologists: Position Statement on Early Childhood Assessment

Authors:    National Association of School Psychologists
Published:    2007
Description:    NASP supports early childhood assessment practices that allow for accurate and fair identification of the developmental needs of infants, preschoolers, and young children and facilitate interventions that involve parents and other caregivers. Sound early childhood assessment should involve a multi-disciplinary team, including school psychologists with specialized training in the assessment of the young child who view behavior, mental health, and development from a longitudinal perspective.

Online:   http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/positionpapers/EarlyChildhoodAssessment.pdf


A Review Of Methods and Instruments Used In State and Local School Readiness Evaluations

Authors:    G. Brown, C. Scott-Little, L. Amwake, & L.Wynn
Published:  2007
Description:  This report provides detailed information about the methods and instruments used to evaluate school readiness initiatives, discusses important considerations in selecting instruments, and provides resources and recommendations that may be helpful to those who are designing and implementing school readiness evaluations.

Online:   http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southeast/pdf/rel_2007004.pdf


Accountability in Early Childhood: No Easy Answers

Authors:    Samual J. Meisels
Published:    2006
Description:    High-stakes accountability testing has become a major focus of our educational system with the creation of the No Child Left Behind Act . However, Meisels argues that this approach, which was developed for middle- and high-school children, is problematic when applied to early childhood programs. Citing current research, Meisels points out four reasons for not using high-stakes tests to determine the quality of early childcare, and illustrates how these factors contributed to the failure of the Head-Start National Reporting System. Alternative methods for determining program quality are recommended including assessing: program characteristics, demographic variables, and program impact on children

Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/opmeisels2006.pdf

 

Research Foundations for Using Clinical Judgment (Informed Opinion) for Early Intervention Eligibility Determination

Authors:    Stephen J. Bagnato, Janell Smith-Jones, Margarate Matesa & Eileen McKeating-Esterle
Published:    November, 2006
Description:    Clinical Judgment, or informed opinion, refers to the knowledgeable perceptions of caregivers and professionals about the elusive and subtle capabilities of children in different settings that must be defined and quantifies so that individuals or teams are able to reach accurate decisions about eligibility for early intervention. The characteristics of clinical judgment examined in these 20 research studies highlight the practices that best enable individuals to describe child-related information and that contribute to effective evaluation decisions. Our findings identified five practice characteristics relevant to relevant to the clinical judgments by individuals and one by teams. Implications for eligibility determination for Part C early intervention and further research are described.
Online:   http://www.tracecenter.info/cornerstones/cornerstones_vol2_no3.pdf


Head Start: Further Development Could Allow Results of New Test To Be Used for Decision Making

Authors:    United States Government Accountability Office
Published:    May 2005
Description:    The National Reporting System (NRS) is an assessment developed in accordance with the Good Start, Grow Smart initiative to measure the progress of 4 and 5 year-old children participating in Head Start programs across the United States. The findings are intended to provide information about the performance of Head Start grantees. In this report, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) examines the quality of the information garnered from the NRS, as well as how the Head Start Bureau has responded to concerns raised by grantees and experts in the field. Issues raised by the authors include: the validity and reliability of the assessment, the narrow scope of Head Start requirements tested, a lack of definition as to how the results will be used for program improvement, and the feasibility of conducting the assessment with all children enrolled in Head Start.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/gaoreport.pdf


Early Childhood Measures Profiles

Authors:    Project Coordinators: Daniel J. Berry, Lisa J. Bridges, and Martha J. Zaslow
Authors of Early Childhood Measures Profiles: Lisa J. Bridges, Daniel J. Berry, Rosalind Johnson, Julia Calkins, Nancy Geyelin Margie, Stephanie W. Cochran, Thomson J. Ling, and Martha J. Zaslow
Authors of Early Head Start Measures Section: Allison Sidle Fuligni and Cristy Brady-Smith
Published:    2004
Description:    This paper supplies information on over 40 instruments developed to assess early childhood development in reference to participants': approaches to learning, general cognition, language ability and literacy, mathematical skill, and social-emotional development. It also describes instruments which can be used for ongoing observational assessment and those employed by Early Head Start. Each instrument is described in reference to its overall purpose and major constructs, age range, status as norm or criterion referenced, and reliability and validity, as well as the administrator training required, length of administration, and cost. Test publisher contact information is also provided.
Download:   http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/ecmeasures04/report.pdf


Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

Authors:    Judith J. Carta, Charles R. Greenwood, Gayle J. Luze, Gabriel Cline, and Susan Kuntz
Published:    2004
Description:    The development of an Early Social Indicator, which would enable early intervention practitioners to identify and measure the progress of children who have difficultly acquiring social skills, was the focus of this study. 57 children ages birth to three participated in the study. Using the General Outcomes Measure approach as a model, 14 skill elements were computed and analyzed in relation to two criterion measures, as well as evaluated for reliability and sensitivity over time. Of the fourteen potential measures one, positive verbal social behavior, was determined to be feasible for use by early intervention practitioners.
Download:    http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/jei_social_igdi_paper2004.pdf


Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) for Infants and Toddlers: Extending DIBELS to Children Younger than Kindergarten

Authors:   Charles R. Greenwood, Judith J. Carta, and Dale Walker
Published:    March 12, 2004
Description:    This presentation was made at the DIBELS Summit 2004 Conference in Albuquerque, NM. The presentation describes brief and repeatable progress measures for infants and toddlers in the areas of communication, problem solving, social, and movement developmental domains. Included is a description of the partially completed Web site resources supporting these measures and a description of technical adequacy for each measure (e.g., criterion validity, reliability, etc.). Additionally, the link between these measures for infants and toddlers are related to similar measures for preschoolers, and the DIBELS measures for children K-8 years of age.
Download:   

http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/Measuring_Intervention_Results.pdf

DIBELS online: https://dibels.uoregon.edu/

IGDIs for Infants and Toddlers online: http://www.igdi.ku.edu/

IGDIs for Preschoolers online: http://ggg.umn.edu/



Preschool Assessment: A Guide to Developing a Balanced Approach
Authors:    Ann S. Epstein, Lawrence J. Schweinhart, Andrea DeBruin-Parecki and Kenneth B. Robin
Published:    July 2004
Description:    This new brief from the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) examines assessment of learning among preschoolers and the trend toward increased standardized testing of young children. Preschool Assessment: A Guide to Developing a Balanced Approach offers definitions and applications of assessment concepts and policy recommendations essential to a balanced approach.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/nieer.pdf


Council for Exceptional Children Policy on Assessment and Accountability

Authors:    Council for Exceptional Children
Published:    2003
Description:    This paper describes 11 policy statements, proposed by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), to ensure that children with disabilities are appropriately assessed under educational assessment and accountability systems.

Online:   https://www.cec.sped.org/~/media/Files/Policy/CEC%20Professional%20Policies%20and%20Positions/AssessmentAccountability_Policy.pdf


Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Movement for Infants and Toddlers

Authors:    Charles R. Greenwood, Gayle J. Luze, Gabriel Cline, Susan Kuntz, Carol Leitschuh
Published:    2002
Description:    The purpose of this study conducted by the Juniper Gardens Children's Project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the General Outcome Measurement (GOM) approach for measuring movement outcomes for a birth through three intervention program. 27 infants and toddlers were evaluated using two criterion measures and the Movement GOM. The Movement GOM was found to be reliable - as determined by odd-even and alternative form reliability measurements, and valid - as determined by criterion measures. It also demonstrated sensitivity over time in terms of changes in key skill elements, and growth in total movement rate. It was concluded that this measure was a feasible alternative to current measurement systems which are longer, more expensive, and motor-skill focused.
Download:    http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/TopicsMovementIGDI2002.pdf


Multidisciplinary Screening in an Arena Setting for Developmental Delays in Children birth to six years of age

Authors:    Gary E. Eddy, Kenneth L. Robey, Paul Zumoff, and Zeenat Q. Malik
Published:    1995
Description:    The Matheny Infant Screening Program (MISP) is an assessment system in which team members from varying disciplines observe infants and toddlers in an arena setting to identify those in need of further assessment for possible developmental delays. This system evaluates a range of developmental areas, while focusing on areas of concern expressed by parents. Results indicate the measure to be useful in confirming parents' beliefs and concerns regarding their children's development.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/multidisciplinary_screening.pdf


Principles and Recommendations for Early Childhood Assessments

Authors:    The National Education Goals Panel by the Goal 1 Early Assessments Resource Group
Published:    February, 1998
Description:    The first of the National Education Goals states that by the year 2000 all children in America will start school ready to learn. Pressed by demands for greater accountability and enhanced educational performance, states are developing standards and creating new criteria and approaches for assessing achievement. Calls to assess young children are also increasing. This article illustrates how best to craft such assessments in light of young children's unique development, recent abuses of testing, and the legitimate demands for clear and useful information. General principles that should guide both policies and practices for the assessment of young children are provided, and four purposes of assessment for young children are discussed. For each purpose, the definition, audience, technical requirements and age continuum are listed. Recommendations for policymakers are also presented for each purpose, and a chart outlining appropriate uses and technical accuracy of assessments change across the early childhood age continuum is included.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/NEGP_goal1_Assessment_Principles.pdf

Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs): Assessment That Guides Intervention for Young Children

Authors:    Judith J. Carta, Charles R. Greenwood, Dale Walker, Ruth Kaminski, Roland Good, Scott McConnell, and Mary McEvoy,
Published:    1998
Description:   

This article illustrates the concept of General Outcome Measurement (GOM) as it relates to the use of Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDI). IGDIs are specialized skills which when measured provide an indication of a child's overall ability in a particular developmental domain. The authors provide a rational for the use of IGDIs to measure outcomes for children birth to age 8, as well as an example which illustrates how indicators are measured, where one may put them into practice, the interpretation of the resulting data to make decisions, and how this data can be used to measure the effectiveness of interventions and special education programs.

Download:   

http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/IndivGrowthandDevelopment.pdf

IGDIs for Infants and Toddlers online: http://www.igdi.ku.edu/

IGDIs for Preschoolers online: http://ggg.umn.edu/



Assessment in Early Childhood Education: A Consumer's Guide

Authors:    Langhorst, B. H.
Published:    1989
Description:    This resource document, though not current, still contains valuable information to help early childhood practitioners judge instrument appropriateness and technical quality. The guide focuses mainly on standardized, broadly available instruments. The guide offers: (1) an overview of issues in early childhood testing; (2) a discussion of criteria for selection of instruments in general, and specifically, of those appropriate for developmental screening, readiness assessment, or instructional planning; and (3) discussions of the state of the art and prospects for the future, reviews of assessment instruments, and ways to choose an Early Childhood Education test. Appendices provide a code of fair testing, a list of reference works for early childhood assessment, and reviews or descriptions of over 50 early childhood assessment instruments. Reviews briefly describe the purpose of the instrument, test contents, administration format and procedures, scoring, norms, validity, reliability, utility, and availability.
Online:   http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED307980&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED307980

 

Family Outcomes

Personal Outcome Measures for Families with Young Children

Authors:    The Council on Quality and Leadership
Description:    Personal Outcome Measures for Families with Young Children are applicable to services and supports that enable families to raise and nurture infants and young children from birth through age five.
Online: http://thecouncil.org/pomindex.aspx


Part C Family Survey Guide

Author:    Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC)
Published:    2009
Description:    This guide was developed to assist states in developing improvement activities using their parent survey data in response to Indicator 4 of the Part C State Performance Plan (SPP). The purpose of the guide is to help states use the findings of their surveys to improve services, no matter what survey instrument is used (e.g., NCSEAM, state-developed, or ECO). The intent is to answer the questions, "What do the results mean?" and "How can we use this information to improve services?"
Online:    http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/Part_c_family_survey_guide_RRC.pdf


Family supports and services in early intervention: A bold vision

Authors:    Turnbull, A. P., Summers, J. A., Turnbull, R., Brotherson, M. J., Winton, P., Roberts, R. et al.
Revised:    2007
Description:    This article utilizes four knowledge sources to characterize a current gap in policy and practice related to serving families in early intervention (birth to 5) programs. It argues that the field of early intervention has focused primarily on implementing family-centered practices by focusing on how families and professionals should interact. The field has not sufficiently addressed what supports and services should be offered to families to enhance the likelihood of positive outcomes for families themselves and for their children with disabilities. The paper concludes with recommendations for enhancing policy, research, and professional development related to family services and supports.
Citation: Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 187-206
Online: http://jei.sagepub.com/content/29/3/187.abstract


Recommended Outcomes for Families of Young Children with Disabilities

Authors:    Bailey, D. B. Jr., Bruder, M.B., Hebbeler, K., Carta, J., Defosset, M., Greenwood, C., Kahn, L., Mallik, S., Markowitz, J., Spiker, D., Walker, D., & Barton, L.
Revised:    2006
Description:    The Early Childhood Outcomes (ECO) Center was funded by the Office of Special Education Programs to promote the development and implementation of child and family outcome measures for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with disabilities. An evidence-based process with extensive stakeholder input led to the identification of five outcomes by which the effectiveness of services for families could be assessed: (a) families understand their child's strengths, abilities, and special needs; (b) families know their rights and advocate effectively for their child; (c) families help their child develop and learn; (d) families have support systems; and (e) families are able to gain access to desired services and activities in their community. These outcomes provide a framework by which states and the federal government could document whether early intervention and preschool programs are providing demonstrable benefits for families, and provide the basis for developing measurement systems to determine the extent to which such benefits have been attained.
Citation: Journal of Early Intervention, 28 , 227-243
Online: http://jei.sagepub.com/content/28/4/227.abstract


Family Outcomes Measurement

Toward Assessing Family Outcomes of Service Delivery: Validation of a Family Quality of Life Survey

Authors:    J. Park, l. Hoffman, J. Marquis, A.P. Turnbull, D. Poston, H. Mannan, M. Wang, and L.L. Nelson
Published:    2003
Description:    The aim of this research study was to develop a tool to measure family quality of life as an outcome of family centered support and services provided by intervention programs for disabled children. Researchers conducted two studies to meet this goal. First, 171 subjects participated in interviews and focus groups to aid researchers in developing 10 quality of life domains. These domains were used to create a pilot survey which was administered to the subjects and subsequently revised. Second, the revised survey was administered to 1197 participants as part of a national field test. Further revisions, as well as implications for service delivery and future research are discussed.
Citation:    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47 (4/5), 367-384
Online:    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787167


Developing an Early Childhood Outcomes System for OSEP: Key Considerations

Authors:    Deborah Montgomery Parrish and Gabriele Phillips
Revised:    December 15, 2003
Description:    To continue to advance work in the area of child outcomes, OSEP asked AIR to review and compile available information on approaches to measurement of child and family outcomes.
Downloads:    OSEP Report: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Final_Report_12_15.pdf
Appendix A: Child Outcome Standards: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppA.pdf
Appendix B: Child Outcome Domains, Comparisons Across Five Systems: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppB.pdf
Appendix C: Child Outcome Measurement Tools: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppC.pdf
Appendix D: Summary of Nine Family Outcome Systems: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppD.pdf
Appendix E: Family Outcome Measurement Tools: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppE.pdf
Appendix F: 2003 APR Summary Table: http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/OSEP_Report_AppF.pdf


Implementing Results-Based Decision making: Advice from the Field

Author:    Sara Watson
Published:    1999
Description:    A joint publication of the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and The Finance Project, this report is based on extensive interviews and discussion with more than 50 leaders in the field providing advice on measuring the success of their supports for children and families by the results or outcomes they achieve for individuals, families and communities. It covers various dimensions of results-based decision-making, including strategic planning which logically connects strategies to the outcomes.
Download:   http://fpg.unc.edu/~eco/assets/pdfs/1999WELFAREBARRIERS.pdf

Data Systems

Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

Author:    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Date:    2012
Description:    This toolkit describes five policy levers that can enhance quality in early childhood programs. One of the five levers is "Advancing data collection, research and monitoring." This section provides examples of how governments of countries around the world are using data to improve programs, as well as links to websites, research briefs, frameworks, guides, training videos, and brochures related to data use. One of the briefs specifically addresses international strategies to address the challenges of collecting data on child development measurement of child outcomes in other countries.
Online:   

Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolkit: http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/startingstrongiiiaqualitytoolboxforecec.htm
Policy lever: Advancing data collection, research and monitoring http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/startingstrongiiiaqualitytoolboxforececadvancingdatacollectionresearchandmonitoring.htm
Sample Brief: Internatinoal Strategies addressing collection of data on child developmenthttp://www.oecd.org/education/school/49323987.pdf

Kids Count Data Book

Author:    Kids Count Data Center
Published:    Annually
Description:    The annual KIDS COUNT Data Book profiles the well-being of America's children on a state-by-state basis and ranks states on 10 key measures of child well-being. This is a project of the Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Online:    http://datacenter.kidscount.org/publications

Webinar on Building Early Childhood Data Systems

Author:    Child Care and Early Education Research Connections
Date:    April, 2011
Description:   

Presenters from the Early Childhood Data Collaborative, the National Governors Association, Maine, Missouri, the US Department of Health and Human Services, and OSEP discussed building early childhood data systems.

Online:    http://fpg.unc.edu/assets/pdfs/WebinaronBuildingEarlyChildhoodDataSystems4202011.pdf

Many Missing Pieces: The Difficult Task of Linking Early Childhood Data and School- Based Data Systems

Author:    Laura Bornfreund and Maggie Severns
Published:    October, 2010
Description:   

This brief from the New America Foundation finds that many states are missing key pieces of data about young children before they enter Kindergarten.  Therefore, current efforts to track children's education progress from PreK through High School face serious challenges.

Online:    http://fcd-us.org/sites/default/files/NAF-ManyMissingPieces%20%28Bornfreund%20and%20Severns%29.pdf

Building and Using Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems: A Framework for States

Author:    The Early Childhood Data Collaborative
Published:    August, 2010
Description:    This white paper discusses why states should build longitudinal data systems for early care and education, describes the ten fundamentals of a coordinated system with state examples, and provides guidance on how to ensure appropriate access to data, which includes building the capacity for stakeholders to use the data for continuous improvement.
Online:    http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/find-resources/building-and-using-coordinated-state-early-care-and-education-data-systems/

Getting Started: 10 Fundamentals of Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems

Author:    The Early Childhood Data Collaborative
Published:    August, 2010
Description:    This brochure highlights the importance of coordinated and longitudinal data systems and what states can do to start building them to inform continuous improvement in early care and education.
Online:    http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/find-resources/getting-started/

A Q and A with Albert Wat of Pre-K Now

Author:    Julie Poppe
Published:    January, 2010
Description:    In this interview, Albert Wat of Pre-K Now describes the work of the Early Childhood Data Collaborative and issues related to state-level early childhood data systems. Wat describes critical features of an early childhood data system and how data can be used to improve child outcomes.
Online:    http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/human-services/a-q-and-a-with-albert-wat-of-pre-k-now.aspx

Using Unique Identifiers to Promote Data Sharing Between Part C and Part B

Authors:    Chandra Keller-Allen
Published:    April 2009
Description:    Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) published this policy analysis. The author describes state obligations regarding early childhood transition from Part C to Part B of IDEA and reports on the experiences of six states that currently use unique identifiers in their data systems to track children from Part C to Part B.
Online:    http://www.nasdse.org/publications-t577/using-unique-identifiers-to-promote-data-sharing-b.aspx

A Development Plan for Early Care and Education Data and Research Systems

Authors:    Susan Wilson
Published:    November 2006
Description:    This Data Development Plan analyzes the state of early care and education data and research in Connecticut and proposes ten priority actions to make quality data available and useable for policy planning and accountability. The Plan also evaluates data in six major policy areas and makes recommendations for improvement.
Online:    http://www.chdi.org/files/11292006_15488_532925_pdf.pdf

Putting Administrative Data to Work: A Toolkit for State Agencies on Advancing Data Integration and Data Sharing Efforts to Support Sound Policy and Program Development.

Authors:    Frances Duran, Susan Wilson & David Carroll
Published:    April 2005
Description:    This toolkit is designed to help state agencies transform administrative data into a powerful tool for decision makers. Through guidelines, tips and examples from across the country, the toolkit helps instruct users on how to pursue various enhancement strategies.
Online:    http://www.chdi.org/files/10262005_102959_2046440_pdf.pdf